Robert McKinley, Senior Analyst/Editor Robert McKinley is an analyst of the payments industry on a daily basis for 32 years covering payment cards and payment systems from both the business side and the consumer side. McKinley is the retired founder and chief executive of RAM Research, CardWeb and CardTrak. In his prior position, McKinley has participated in more than 10,000 documented news media interviews, testified as an expert witness in two separate $billion+ U.S. anti-trust trials, testified before the U.S. Congress, assisted the GAO with paymentsIMG_2006 (1).jpeg reports, chaired numerous business conferences and provided C-Suite opinion to a multitude of Fortune 500 companies. In retirement, he has continued developing and funding digital media assets as well as contributing payments related analysis/content to a broad list of online publishers, including CardFlash, CardTrak and CardData. McKinley is also a national certified mentor with the non-profit SCORE organization with a focus on assisting Fintech startups. www.robert-mckinley.com

Borrowing Propensity

Despite the growth of purchase volumes, consumer leverage, as estimated by the financial obligations ratio (FOR), which measures debt service payments on mortgage debt, auto debt, consumer debt and property taxes as a percentage of disposable personal income, continued to decline, amounting to 15.27% in fourth-quarter 2014. This compares with a peak FOR of 18.09% recorded in fourth-quarter 2007 and a 35-year average of 16.51%. As interest rates rise, and consumers experience higher debt service burdens.